Time to Act: New law a welcome step towards world-class education

Every time a world university ranking comes out, we look for the possibility of our state universities on the list in much the same way that a student scans the list of names when exam results are announced.

Digital universities

Our public institutions, however, never make it to these rankings, or appear shamefully behind universities elsewhere in the world.

This time though, Maharashtra’s Higher and Technical Education (HTE) department is working towards a better grade. In December, the State Legislative Assembly passed the Maharashtra Public Universities Act 2016 to bring state universities up to par with the times and with top universities in India.

The Act introduces several reforms in the functioning of 11 institutions currently governed by the Maharashtra Public Universities Act. It proposes the idea of a Cluster University (a clutch of empowered autonomous institutes), a committee to fix fees, a digital university and a choice-based credit system with transferable credit points. It also plans to reintroduce student elections and establish centres in foreign countries.

MA Khan, registrar of the University of Mumbai says the previous Act, in use since 1994, was outdated. “The new Act is progressive and makes provisions for activities that can improve higher education in Maharashtra,” he adds.

The Bill has got the signature from the Chancellor (Governor) and has got status of an Act that may be effective from March this year. It is based on the recommendations of three committees set up in 2010-11 to suggest long-term strategies that might improve the management of the 11 state universities and the 3774 colleges affiliated to them.

Here are some of the major features of the Act and how they have been received within the community.


The Act is designed to be more student-friendly. Clauses include appointing the previous year’s topper in a particular stream (Arts, Science or Commerce) as a member of that faculty’s board of studies. It recommends nominating the president of a university students’ council as an invitee member of the management council. It also proposes special exams for students who miss them because they are participating in sports and cultural events.

“Student representation is extremely important in university decisions and we will welcome students’ opinions on the syllabus through the Act,” says Anand Mapuskar, subject expert at the HTE department. He was also part of education minister Vinod Tawde’s 21-member committee that took a final look at the Bill before it was tabled in the Assembly. “The Act makes provisions for an ombudsman at the college and universitylevel for students’ grievances.” It also reintroduces college and university elections.

The Act recommends that universities and their affiliated colleges set up complaints committees to address sexual harassment, much like those in workplaces under the Vishakha Guidelines. It takes the existing Credit system a step ahead by proposing a choice-based credit system, which will allow students to choose a subject from any stream of education (academic, technology, professional and social, and personality and cultural development) and transfer credits smoothly. This will ease the movement of students between universities and colleges.

“Our careers will no longer depend upon our subject choices, which is a relief,” says Shweta Verhani, 20, second-year Arts student. She adds that choice based accreditation will allow more room to experiment with streams.”

In other good news for students, semester exam timetables will be released a year before the exams start. “We understand that students who opt for competitive exams after college need the dates to plan their studies and exams. Thus, there is a provision for this in the Act,” says Mapuskar.


To free universities from vested interests, the Act proposes to create the Maharashtra State

Council for Higher Education and Development (MAHED). The umbrella body will plan, shape, coordinate, supervise, devise use of technology and raise finances for higher education. It will be headed by the chief minister and run by academicians, scientists, technocrats, and industry and financial experts.

The concept of MAHED comes from a committee headed by Anil Kakodkar. “But it was supposed to be in addition to the Higher Education Council, which is almost dormant,” says Kakodkar, a nuclear scientist and former member of Board of Governors of IIT-Bombay. “Political bodies can’t get too involved in running a university. It needs an environment to flourish and grow. It needs to be peer-driven and not hierarchy driven. Mixing these two defeats the purpose.”

Others see it differently. “MAHED will link the state with the Ministry of Human Resource Development and decision-making councils in higher and professional education, as well as with the government’s think tank NITI Aayog,” says MS Kurhade, dean of Arts and principal of DTSS College of Commerce, Malad. “This link was missing and is much needed.”

Madhu Paranjape, member of the Bombay University and College Teachers’ Union (BUCTU) fears that a government-led body means a loss of democratic functioning. “Nominated members protect the interest of the government and self-financing institutes,” she says.


The Act claims to have a far reaching vision, making progressive strides in Maharashtra’s higher education.

It proposes to create a comprehensive digital university framework for e-learning and administrative services. “The world is moving towards a digital phase and we cannot shy away from offering this opportunity to our students,” says registrar Khan. He adds that work has already begun and affiliated colleges will soon have WiFi on campuses.

Not everyone is rejoicing. Of the 750 affiliated colleges under the University of Mumbai, only 296 colleges are in Mumbai and its urbanised periphery. The majority are in rural areas, where most students don’t even own cellphones or computers. “This is an Act of the elite. It isn’t inclusive at all,” says Paranjape, referring to the new governing council and the idea of student election – provisions that can’t be modified once they are put into the act.

The Act’s other additions include cultivating research parks, technology incubators and other entities to help university research reach the commercial domain and allow faculty groups from several disciplines to collaborate on projects. It also hopes to establish centers or institutions in foreign countries with the permission of the Central and the State Government.

Its offer of empowered autonomy for groups of better-graded colleges has had a mixed response. “Cluster universities can take the load off institutions like the University of Mumbai, which has a large number of affiliated colleges,” explains Ashok Wadia, principal, Jai Hind College, Churchgate, who was also part of the team in the earlier phases of the creation of the Act. “But it is yet to be seen what statutes are made to implement them. It will be important to see how colleges are segregated and decentralised, as each college has its own culture, region and mission. Autonomy will always be preferred over clusters.”

Kakodkar sees the Act as an incremental progression. “It has failed to consider our recommendations in their entirety,” he says. “However, I understand that when you make an Act, you need to take everyone along. Probably, that is why some recommendations have been watered down.”

Create Interactive Websites By Learning Front End Development Course

Web development and website creation are a sequentially emerging space with rapidly changing technology. To get success in this field the developer has to be up to date with all the emerging technologies in this field. Front end is a technology which is used mainly for web development. It is a client-side application. Using a clean and appealing front end will be helpful to the candidates to develop websites.

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What the course is about?

This course will master the participants in the skills which are required to become a Front End Web Developer. In this course, the participants will learn about the fundamentals of how the web works. The candidates will also gain the working knowledge of the fundamental website foundational languages such as the HTML, CSS and JS.

Through this course, participants are able to build better, responsive websites which are optimized for mobiles and desktop performance. The candidates will learn entirely about the front end developing. By learning this Front End Developer online Courses the graduates will earn an industry- recognized credential and benefit from extensive career support. Learning this certification course will help candidates to create interactive and functional websites that provide the users the wonderful user experience.

With this web development course, candidates will learn how to create front end applications from scratch. Participants will also learn about the core functionalities and uses of the languages HTML, CSS, JavaScript and jQuery. Similarly, participants will also know how to use these languages to create web pages that are visually appealing and stimulating.

In this course, the participants will learn about the fundamentals of the Front End development.

What the participants will learn?

Candidates of these front end developer online courses in Chennai will,

  • Learn about the fundamentals of front end programming and obtain the knowledge about how to build web applications.
  • Learn how to create advanced navigation and learn to incorporate metadata and multimedia with HTML 5 and CSS 3
  • Participants will be able to develop their own concepts in programming by learning to code in JavaScript and jQuery
  • Candidates will also learn to write jQuery codes for UI development
  • Candidates will also learn about the fundamentals of JavaScript
  • This training empowers the participants to create their own real time websites using front end tools
  • Aspirants who pursue this training have demonstrated a full understanding of front end development components and the ability to change the user interface based on their practices
  • Participants are provided with the knowledge of templates, CSS, JavaScript and other front end related components
  • Learn about how to implement design related system configuration

Who can take this course?

This course is basically designed for all types of people those who are interested in learning the Front End course. This course is also taken by

  • Developers
  • Website developers
  • Programmers
  • Bloggers
  • Website designers
  • Graduates
  • Students
  • Beginners
  • Aspired candidates those who want to become a Front End Developer

What are the prerequisites?

Basic computer knowledge is enough for the candidates to take this course.

Learn Certified MS.NET Framework Course To Develop Full Layered Application

About MS.NET Framework

MS.NET framework is a popular and most powerful framework. Most of the pre available framework such as java or PHP concerns about only one layer of the application.  Or they take care of a part of the application development. This framework provides application development in Object Oriented Programming model and support to develop Windows Application, Web application and Web services. This framework also allows the development of applications in different layered and different tired models to work on the main business logic rather than concentrate on non-application code.

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What the course is about?

This training course covers all the concepts of Microsoft net. Participants will learn about the basic concepts of that made Microsoft net probably the most popular Microsoft framework. In this training course, participants will learn about all the fundamentals of MS .NET. This includes the concepts such as the architecture of the framework, how to create the first and basic applications.

At the end of this Ms net training course, participants will be able to create web applications and web services using MS .NET framework. This training course will help the candidates to gain an in-depth knowledge about this framework. This will teach the candidates the core syntax of MS.NET language and how to use it in various frameworks.

This training will explais about the relationship of this framework with the Dot Net Frame work and the Windows. By learning this course the candidates will be know how to use MS.NET language in different IDE’s.

What are the course objectives?

After the completion of this training course the participants will be able to understand:

  • Microsoft framework architecture
  • About the development of console application
  • How to build windows application
  • Learn about the Object Oriented Programming using C# .NET
  • About the basics of data access mechanisms provided by ADO.NET
  • Create and consume libraries
  • How to create a web application using .NET
  • How to integrate IIS with ASP.NET
  • How to work with POSTBACK
  • How to develop website and web application
  • Methods of application security
  • About the developments of web services and consume web services

Who can do this course?

This Microsoft net framework course Jakarta can be pursued by anyone those who want to become an ASP.NET web developer or want to learn MS.NET framework. This course can be pursued by

  • Programmers
  • Beginners
  • Programmers those who want to enhance their skills
  • Web developers
  • Software professionals
  • Students
  • Graduates
  • And by anyone

What are the prerequisites?

The required prerequisites for learning this MS NET framework include the basic knowledge of any one programming language such as C, C++, Java, HTML and JavaScript and any one of the database language such as Oracle, SQL Server, MySQL etc

The benefits of learning this course

  • This course will make the learners a highly efficient programmer in MS.NET framework
  • The candidates will be able to work on this framework
  • The candidates will be able to write the code for integrating this platform with others
  • Once the participants will learn this course they will find excellent career chances

Reviews of Phentermine

Phentermine is a stimulant which is same as amphetamine and reduces hunger pangs and appetite by affecting central nervous system. Phentermine supplements are highly used to reduce weight and favorable results are gained when followed by healthy diet and proper exercise.

Phentermine supplements are used by people suffering from obesity, to reduce diabetes, high blood pressure as well as high cholesterol which are main causes of extra body fat. Phentermine supplements should be consumed as advised by doctor, following instructions on label. Individuals should not use for longer period time more than advised by physician. Now Phentermine supplements are available with different names since more number of manufacturers are promoting to market with different names.

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Few brands of Phentermine are supposed to be consumed on empty stomach, where as few brands like Suprenza can be consumed on empty stomach or after having food. But, the medicine is not supposed to be touched with wet hands and tablet should be consumed without water and placing tablet alone in mouth. Few people may experience sleep deprivations and to prevent this, the tablet should be taken early by post noon.

After consuming Phentermine tablets, user should experience less hunger that leads to weight loss. And if that does not happen, user should consult doctor and should not increase dosage of Phentermine supplementation on own since it leads to serious life threatening side effects. To avoid withdrawal symptoms, Phentermine should not be stopped before hand and it is safe to follow doctor’s advice before stopping medicine.

Phentermine supplements are not supposed to be consumed by expectant and lactating mothers. Individuals with the flash back of heart diseases should also avoid Phentermine supplements, since it causes further blockage in arteries. People who are under medications to control their high blood pressure, overactive thyroid and hypertension should consult doctor before using Phentermine supplements.

Supplements of Phentermine should not be consumed by users less than sixteen years of age to avoid health complications. When using for obesity and weight loss, Phentermine should be consumed around 15 to 37.5 mgs in empty stomach to lose extra fat in the body.

Side effects of Phentermine

  • Phentermine user should avoid consumption of alcohol, since it increases the chances of side effects.
  • Self driving is better to avoid, since the supplements of Phentermine impair thinking and reduces alertness.
  • Few users may experience symptoms like- chest congestion, wheezing, swollen face and trouble in breathing.
  • Some may experience unusual thoughts and change in behavior, feelings like extreme happiness or sadness and changes in heart beat.
  • Other serious side effects like- uncontrollable head ache, high blood pressure, impaired and blurred vision, continuous buzzing in ears, seizures, severe chest pain, shortness of breath and uneven heart beats.
  • Some individuals may experience common side effects of Phentermine such as – hyper activeness or extremely lazy, tremors in hands and legs, head ache and constant dizziness.
  • Few may experience, diarrhea or constipation, frequent stomach upsets and sometimes impotence.
  • When the side effects do not reduce within three days, users should consult doctor to overcome the problem without any negligence.

Delhi government to open early childhood education centres

Deputy chief minister Manish Sisodia said that these 3,000 centres, once opened, would prepare about 2.5-3 lakh children for schools over three years.Deputy chief minister Manish Sisodia said that these 3,000 centres, once opened, would prepare about 2.5-3 lak… Read More
NEW DELHI: Delhi’s Deputy chief minister Manish Sisodia on Thursday announced that the Delhi government will soon set up Early Childhood Care & Education (ECCE) centres in Delhi.

He made the announcement at a programme organised by theAmbedkar University at India Habitat Centre here.

“We are setting up Early Childhood Care & Education Centres in Delhi. Our government is very much serious about this project. We need almost 3,000 ECCE centres,” Sisodia said.

He said that these 3,000 centres, once opened, would prepare about 2.5-3 lakh children for schools over three years.

“But, it would take time to set up 3,000 centres. So, it is my endeavour to start 10 centres on pilot basis in one month. These pilot centres will be opened specifically in slum clusters and unauthorised colonies.”

Sisodia said, “This will help the kids living in slums clusters a lot and prepare them for school education, which most of the time they don’t get.”

The ECCE centres, he said, should function in a way that when a six-year-old goes to school, he should be prepared for academic education.

“In the name of early childhood education, we have playways and nursery classes, but those lack the broader concept of early childhood care.”

“We will develop ECCE centres in a way where children are taught lessons of life through plays, activities and games. We will run these centres with the help of society and experts,” Sisodia added.


Class 10 board exams likely to return from 2018


MHRD minister Prakash Javadekar

NEW DELHI: The government is set to announce the reintroduction of the Class 10 board exam for students affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India’s largest national school test-conducting body.

The announcement is likely to be made by HRD ministerPrakash Javadekar on October 25 and will be his first major decision after taking over as HRD minister in early July. The Class X boards are likely to be back from 2018.

Javadekar will also announce a new ‘no-detention’ policy wherein students will be automatically promoted till Class V. States will then devise their options till Class VIII but will need to provide an opportunity for a “re-test” for students who fail.

The CBSE Class 10 board examination was scrapped in 2010 and replaced with the current continuous and comprehensive evaluation+ that provides for tests and grading through the year as a means to reduce pressure on students.

Reasons for reintroduction of the Class X Board examinations include feedback from states and representative organisations of parents and teachers that doing away with the exam along with the no-detention policy was affecting academic standards, even though studies indicated that the number of drop-outs has reduced.

The board exam was seen — by those arguing for its retention — as a means of preparing students for the more important school-leaving Class XII tests.

The no-detention policy was felt to be reducing the authority of teachers and prompting schools to merely shuffle an under-performing student from one class to the next.

There were large number of government school students failing in class XI as evaluations became more demanding at the senior school level. These factors seem to have prompted the government to consider amending the decisions.

Touted as a Diwali gift in the HRD ministry, the decision will be made public after the meeting of the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE). State education ministers who are to attend the CABE meeting have been intimated about restoration of Class 10 board examination. Several of them have been saying that scrapping of class X board has not delivered the anticipated benefits.

As the formula for “no-detention” seems complex, “it is for states to decide if they want to detain a child in class 5, 6 or 7 or in all of these classes,” a source said. But a re-test will be made mandatory for students who fail from class VI to VIII. A CABE committee headed by Rajasthan education minister Vasudev Devnani has also ruled in favour of removing the provision of “no-detention” and recommended re-tests. However, NCERT is opposed to removal of the “no-detention” policy.

While restoration of the class 10 board examination does not need a legislative intervention, a change in the no-detention policy does require an amendment in section 16 of the Right to Education Act.

The issue of “no-detention” was also considered by the Supreme Court, which had ruled in its favour. In the Society for Un-aided Private Schools of Rajasthan vs Union of India case, the SC had said holding back in a class or expulsion may lead to large number of dropouts, defeating the purpose of the act, which was to “strengthen the social fabric of democracy and to create a just and humane society”. The decisions were taken in a meeting on Wednesday.

UPSC CDS II 2016: Check these exam rules

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UPSC CDS II exam 2016: The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) has scheduled the Combined Defence Services (CDS) Exam II for Sunday, October 23, 2016. This is one of the most coveted recruitment exams of the country as it assures placement in the defence forces. Candidates participate in this recruitment exam in huge numbers. Given here are some tips and reminders to help students on the day of the exam.

Candidates are advised to keep their UPSC CDS II call letter/admit card ready with them as well a valid IF proofs before the exam. Without these, candidates will not be allowed to write their exam.

Reaching the examination venue well within time is a must. It is advisable to see the exam centre at least one day in advance. If you don’t have the time to do so, keep at least one or two hours as margin time to find the location on the day of the exam. If a candidate reaches the exam centre late, he or she may not be allowed to enter the examination hall.

For answering the exam paper, candidates are required to carry a ball point pen. The exam centre will not provide any stationery.

No unfair means will be allowed in the exam. If a candidate is caught cheating or using other unfair methods to pass the exam, his or her candidature will be cancelled.

Upon receiving the question booklet, make sure you read all instructions. The UPSC does not allow any mistakes on the basis of ignorance of rules.

No electronic equipments such as mobile phones, tablets, Bluetooth devices, ipods, cameras, calculators and the like are allowed inside the examination hall. You also cannot carry any study material with you. It is advisable to leave these things at home instead of carrying them with you as your things might not be safe outside the exam venue. If you have your mobile phone with you, you should submit it to the invigilator well before the start of the exam. Remember to switch it off first.

Candidates are not allowed to talk to each other while writing the exam.

Misbehavior, rudeness and/or refusal to comply with any or all given rules can lead to cancellation of your candidature. Make sure you do not indulge in any such behavior.

IIT directors oppose non-resident students


NEW DELHI: IITs have shown reluctance to the HRD ministry’s idea of having non-resident students at the undergraduatelevel. Sources said most of theIIT directors have expressed serious reservations against the idea arguing that non-resident students will change the character of IITs.They have argued that at the undergraduate level, it is important that students imbibe the spirit of the campus and be a part of the IIT ecosystem.”IIT is also about the larger environment of free debate and liberal atmosphere. Moreover, our undergraduate courses are most sought after,” one director said, adding that IITs are not averse to having nonresident students at post-graduate and doctorate level.

IITs feel that the institutes will have to get involved with the well-being of students even if they live outside the campus. At the IIT Council meeting last month, many directors had supported the idea subject to clearance from their respective senates. Sources said senates of many IITs have not shown any enthusiasm.On the contrary , chairperson of one IIT has even suggested that IITs should outsource the job of hostel upkeep to outside agency . Idea is that the outside agency will pay fee to IITs and charge students at market rate. Money that IITs get from outside agency , sources said, can be used to subsidise hostel charges of needy students. However, a source clarified that this is one of the many ideas on running of hostels.

The idea of non-resident students was mooted to help expand student strength of IITs at undergraduatepostgraduate and doctorate level to one lakh by 2020.

IIT Guwahati invites students to participate in ‘Ishan Vikas’ scheme


(File photo of IIT Guwahati)
GUWAHATI: IIT Guwahati has invited participation of schools of the north eastern states for the upcoming two-week residential central ‘Ishan Vikas’ programme.

The scheme is open for students of Class IX and Class XI science stream for the programme to be held between November 30 and December 22 next, an IIT-G press release

Selected students and accompanying teachers will be provided air travel, food and lodging during the period of the visit, the release said.


Stating ‘Ishan Vikas’ scheme is an initiative taken by the Union Human Resource Development Ministry, it said IIT Guwahati was the coordinating institution for this programme.


The aim of the ‘Ishan Vikas’ programme is to introduce school children of the north eastern states to the best institutions of higher education in the country and to motivate them to pursue science, technology, engineering and mathematics.


Under this scheme, students from different states of the north eastern region studying in classes IX and XI (Science) are sponsored for a two-week visit to a number of premier institutions such as IITs and Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISERs).

Preparation tips, exam pattern for MBA entrance tests

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Graduate students across the country interested in Masters in Business Administration (MBA) programmes are gearing up for various entrance exams such the Common Aptitude Test (CAT), Xaviers Admission Test (XAT), NMAT by GMAC and Symbiosis National Aptitude Test (SNAP), among many others. Most students prepare for only CAT as they want to enter the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) but are left clueless as to how to prepare for any of the other tests. Given here are the exam patterns of XAT, NMAT by GMAC and SNAP to help students prepare for the upcoming exams.

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For more than 60 years, XLRI has conducted its admission test on an all-India level to select the most appropriate students for management education. Their long experience and expertise have helped them in extending this test to other management institutes as well.

This year, there are more than 130 management institutes who will be selecting students through XAT. XLRI – Jamshedpur, S. P. Jain Institute of Management & Research (SPJIMR), Mumbai, IRMA Anand, IMT-Ghaziabad, TAPMI-Manipal, IFMR-Chennai, Great Lakes-Chennai, Welingkar-Mumbai, LIBA-Chennai and XIM-B Bhubaneshwar are some of the institutes selecting candidates through XAT.

XAT 2017 will be on a similar pattern like the last few years. It will have four sections: (i) Verbal and Logical Ability (ii) Decision Making (iii) Quantitative Ability and Data Interpretation (iv) General Knowledge.

The marks of General Knowledge section will not be used for determining the percentile and cut off at first stage of selection. The Critical Reasoning questions based on arguments, assumptions, course of action and forcefulness of the statements are also the part of XAT. Sufficient practice will help students revise concepts.

Read: CAT 2016: Registration begins Aug 8, exam on Dec 4

For the English language part, it would be advisable for students to revise concepts pertaining to RC, sentence correction, vocabulary based questions (confused words), para formation, logical reasoning questions (especially on identifying argument structure and argument elements and inference based questions). Students should also focus on figures of speech as there have been questions on identifying metaphors, oxymorons, personification, etc. in previous years’ XAT papers.

The RC passages in XAT are often based on ‘off-beat’ topics (passages included subjects such as psychology, science and sociology). For the section on Quantitative Ability, a good preparation for CAT should be more than sufficient. Though it must be added that some of the questions in XAT tend to be pretty tricky and it would be advisable for students to be very judicious while attempting questions. It would also be advisable for students to brush up on their speed maths concepts as some of the questions in Data Interpretation tend to be calculation intensive.

For preparation on General Awareness, in addition to reading newspapers regularly, it would be advisable for a student to focus more on issues related to business, economics and politics related to business environment.

Read: CAT 2015 topper Prateek Bajpai gives 10 tips to crack the exam


The exam is conducted for admission to MBA/PGDM programmes offered by NMIMS. NMAT is a computer based exam. This year, the test window is from October 7, 2016 to December 20, 2016.

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Note- there is no negative marking. Applicants can take a maximum of three attempts at NMAT during the test window. NMIMS has a provision for sectional cut offs. Most of the other b-schools accepting NMAT scores do not have this provision.

Except for the Logical Reasoning section, you can cover all other sections of NMAT well with a good preparation for CAT. However, it would be advisable to work on your speed mathematics as some of the questions under Data Interpretation tend to be calculation intensive. Also, 120 questions in120 minutes means that the candidate needs to be really quick in solving questions.

Read: How should non-engineering students prepare for MBA entrance exams?

The questions in reasoning section of NMAT are:

1. Series, analogies, odd man out, coding & decoding, symbols & notations and missing numbers in figures.Analytical puzzles (linear arrangement, circular arrangement, distribution, comparisons and selections)

2. Analytical puzzles (linear arrangement, circular arrangement, distribution, comparisons and selections)Critical reasoning (assumptions, conclusions, inferences, strong & weak arguments, courses of action, cause & effect, assertions and reasons, deductions, input/output, decision making) and Venn diagrams

3. Critical reasoning (assumptions, conclusions, inferences, strong & weak arguments, courses of action, cause & effect, assertions and reasons, deductions, input/output, decision making) and Venn diagrams

Read: MBA India vs MBA abroad


The Symbiosis National Aptitude (SNAP) Test is a common written test for admission to all the Post-Graduate Institutes of Symbiosis International University. A written test is mandatory for admission into any PG programme offered by the constituent institute of Symbiosis International University.

SNAP 2015 followed a familiar test pattern and composition that has been witnessed in earlier years. The overall difficulty level of the test was lower compared to last year. The broad distribution of the test was as follows:

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The total duration of the test was 120 minutes and it comprised of 150 questions overall. The Logical Reasoning section had only 30 questions with two marks per question as against 40 one-mark questions in each of the remaining sections.

Read: How to prepare for Maths in competitive exams

For the section on General English, students should focus on idioms and idiomatic expressions and on parts of speech in grammar. Apart from this, a good CAT preparation would suffice.

For the section on Logical Reasoning, it would be advisable for students to revise concepts pertaining to puzzles, number and letter series, verbal analogies, coding and decoding, strengthening and weakening arguments, and non-verbal reasoning.

For the section on Quantitative Ability, Data Interpretation and Data Sufficiency sections, a good preparation for CAT should be more than sufficient.

For the section on General Awareness, it would be advisable for students to brush up concepts and facts pertaining to definitions (dendrochronology, ekistics etc.), economy, acronyms, history, sport, science & technology and current affairs.

All the best!